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Can you get rejuvenated? The possible approach to immortality

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Introduction  

Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired  function and increased vulnerability to death. 

Aging is one of the main risk factors for major human pathologies, such as  cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In  addition, the characteristics that cause them are genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, dysregulated  nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell  depletion, and poor cell function. communication. altered intercellular.  (Blasco, Partridge, Serrano, Kroemer, & Lopez, 2013) 

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A major study by Korean biotechnologists Byuri Angela Cho, Seong-Keun Yoo, and  Jeong-Sun Seo on skin photoaging and intrinsic features of aging revealed by  transcriptomic network analysis. 

Aging is a biological process which occurs to every individual from the  moment of one’s birth and it is one of “the factor” that causes changes in  skin. In addition, among various factors, ultraviolet (UV) light is the most  well-known extrinsic factor which enhances skin aging. (Gail, 2002) 

First, let’s see the main characteristics of this best-known extrinsic factor, which increases  skin aging. The most of the organs are located internally in the human body, however, in  the case of the skin being the largest organ of our body, it has two sides of the coin; some 

parts are protected against UV rays and others are exposed to UV rays, this is how each  organ experiences aging in various ways, in this case the skin can be classified into three  groups: intrinsic, photographic and hormonal aging. Also presented in this study are data  showing that mtDNA copy number declines with UV exposure and protected skin aging.  There was a clear downward trend with age, supporting previous research.  

Correlations between decreased wound healing processes and aging have  been reported previously, notably an in vivo study showing that wound  healing rates are delayed by 20% to 60% with age. Thus, the decrease in  genes related to wound healing, including ADIPOR2, NOTCH2,  

PRKAR2A, PDPK1, MAKG, with photoaging along with key aging,  NDST1 RXRA, AHNAK2 and CELSR1, EXTL3 and XYLT1, which play a  role in the heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process that is involved  in wound healing, also showed a decrease with aging in exposed and UV protected skin, which strengthened the result. (Byuri, Seong, & Jeong, 2018) 

So is it possible to see beyond skin rejuvenation to immortality? 

For science, aging ceased to be an inexorable process, during the last few years a next  experiment was carried out on mice. 

Según which achieved an enactment of 50% more life and even making these mice in their  old age run 50% more that young mice, to which gene therapies have also been developed  that manage to repair the retina of elderly mice, restoring their vision as they had when they  were young, these are undoubtedly advances that may possibly be applied in humans in the  coming decades. 

“For almost a century calorie restriction (CR) has been the gold standard for  geroprotective interventions, not only extending lifespan and healthspan, but  also preventing or delaying.” (Heidi H Pak, y otros, 2021) 

Research began on which genes and which metabolic pathways were activated during  caloric restriction with the aim of finding the one responsible for the increase in longevity. It was discovered that one of the protagonists was the sirtuins, a family of proteins that are  involved in the health of our cells and that consume NAD molecules to do so, what was  done in the study was to administer a dose of NMN, which is a precursor of NAD,  obtaining quite surprising results, the mice that were administered NMN despite having an  advanced age were able to run 50% further than young mice, as well as have an  improvement in cognitive and cardiovascular processes and of course increase longevity.  

Engineered mice expressing additional copies of SIRT1 or SIRT6, or treated  with sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) such as resveratrol and  

SRT2104 or with NAD+ precursors, have improved organ function, physical  endurance, disease resistance, and longevity. (Michael S, Bonkowski , &  David A. Sinclair , 2016) 

The results are very encouraging, however, thus, due to the complexity of longevity studies,  they are still beginning, the truth is that we still have a long way to go before we can make  such convincing statements, but without a doubt, if similar results were obtained in humans 

to those that have been obtained in In mice, we would be talking about a real revolution.  Another consequence of aging is the apparent accumulation of damage and alterations in  our genome. For decades it was thought that these alterations were due to DNA damage  

that could not be repaired correctly and that little by little Little did cell functioning worsen,  and this hypothesis was further reinforced when dolly the sheep suffered a premature death  since, being cloned from an adult cell, the explanation was obvious, Dolly was born old,  However, years later, more sheep and many other animals were cloned again, but none died  prematurely. It turned out that the reprogramming that the adult cells underwent during  cloning reversed all those changes that it accumulated until old age, thus achieving that  from a aged cell with shortened telomeres and all the different alterations in its genome  animals were born in perfect health and with a normal life expectancy, then this raised a  very interesting question if we know that over time the cell accumulates damage and  alterations in your genome. 

Thus achieving that from an aged cell with shortened telomeres and all the different  alterations in its genome, animals were born in perfect health and with a normal life  expectancy, then this raised a very interesting question if we know that with the passage of  time the cell accumulates damage and alterations in its genome. thus achieving that from an  aged cell with shortened telomeres and all the different alterations in its genome, animals  were born in perfect health and with a normal life expectancy, then this raised a very  interesting question if we know that with the passage of time the cell accumulates damage  and alterations in its genome. So how is it that reprogramming is able to eliminate them and  what was really happening in that cell? if the damage was not really accumulating in the  DNA sequence, the answer was obvious, epigenetics, since it is the tool that the cell has to  decide which genes it is going to express and which ones it is not, so we can see how cells  have the same genes that have the same genome, the same chromosomes end up being as  different as neurons or skin cells, these epigenetic modifications are silencing mechanisms  that prevent the expression of certain genes or certain specific parts of the genome, in this  way the cell chooses only and exclusively those genes and those characteristics that it will  need to carry out its function. 

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Conclusions 

The conclusion we draw from all this is that, looking at both sides, the continued work on  both human skin rejuvenation and rejuvenation in mice can be expected much further in the  future, epigenetics and specifically the accumulation of certain epigenetic alterations are the  best indicator of the real age we have. Now the question that remains is knowing that we  can reprogram an aged cell so that it becomes young again, where is the limit and how  many times can we do this? maybe the day will come when we can imitate those jellyfish  and treat it over and over again the different organs the different cells rejuvenating it over  and over again to the starting point, until we find a limit and until we find a barrier or  something that prevents it. 

Recommendations 

Seeing all this, while science advances, however, what has been more than proven that you  can do to delay aging and even rejuvenate yourself are three things: play sports for at least  150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise a week, improve your diet dividing 50% 

vegetables, 25% proteins, 25% carbohydrates, leading a healthy life, without consuming  things that are harmful to the body. 

References 

Batabyal S, Gajjeraman S, Pradhan S, & Bhattacharya . (3 de November de 2020). Gene therapy  with novel protein restores vision in mice. Obtenido de U.S. Department of Health &  Human Services: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850092/ 

Blasco, M. A., Partridge, L., Serrano, M., Kroemer, G., & Lopez, O. C. (6 de June de 2013). The  hallmarks of aging. Obtenido de Pubmed.gov:  

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23746838/ 

Byuri, A. C., Seong, K. Y., & Jeong, S. S. (18 de july de 2018). Signatures of photo-aging and intrinsic  aging in skin were revealed by transcriptome network analysis. Obtenido de NCBI:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6075446/# 

Gail, J. (April de 2002). Molecular mechanisms of skin ageing. Obtenido de Mech Ageing Dev:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11869737/ 

Guarente, L. (1 de October de 2013). Calorie restriction and sirtuins revisited. Obtenido de NCBI:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850092/ 

Heidi H Pak, Spencer Haws, Mikaela Koller, Cara L , Green, C., Nicole Richardson, . . . John Denu. (1  de june de 2021). 2021 Midwest Clinical and Translational Research Meeting of CSCTR.  FASTING MEDIATES THE METABOLIC, MOLECULAR AND GEROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS IN A  CALORIE RESTRICTED, 1088. Obtenido de FASTING MEDIATES THE METABOLIC,  MOLECULAR AND GEROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS IN A CALORIE RESTRICTED:  

https://jim.bmj.com/content/jim/69/5/1069.full.pdf 

Instituto Mexicano de la Propiedad Industrial . (5 de july de 2017). 5 de julio de 1996 nace la oveja  Dolly. Obtenido de Gobierno de México: https://www.gob.mx/impi/articulos/nace-la oveja-dolly 

Leonard, G. (1 de October de 2013). Calorie restriction and sirtuins revisited. Obtenido de NCBI:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850092/ 

Michael S, Bonkowski , & David A. Sinclair . (24 de August de 2016). Slowing ageing by design: the  rise of NAD+ and sirtuin-activating compounds. Obtenido de NCBI:  

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5107309/ 

Passaniti A, T. R. (1992). A simple, quantitative method for assessing angiogenesis and  antiangiogenic agents using reconstituted basement membrane, heparin, and fibroblast  growth factor. Obtenido de https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1279270/

Written by: Gina Genesis Urdininea Santa Cruz

Words from the Author: “One of my interests is the advancement of biotechnology, so research and learning is one of the things I like, one of my determinations is to become a biotechnologist who already contributes to both present and future advances.”

Editted By: Angie Páez

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s). They do not purport to reflect the opinions or views of the WTO or its members. Las opiniones expresadas en esta publicación son de los autores, no necesariamente reflejan el pensamiento de Haneul Ssem.

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