Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death.
Aging is one of the main risk factors for major human pathologies, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, the characteristics that cause them are genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, dysregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell depletion, and poor cell function. communication. altered intercellular. (Blasco, Partridge, Serrano, Kroemer, & Lopez, 2013)
A major study by Korean biotechnologists Byuri Angela Cho, Seong-Keun Yoo, and Jeong-Sun Seo on skin photoaging and intrinsic features of aging revealed by transcriptomic network analysis.
Aging is a biological process which occurs to every individual from the moment of one’s birth and it is one of “the factor” that causes changes in skin. In addition, among various factors, ultraviolet (UV) light is the most well-known extrinsic factor which enhances skin aging. (Gail, 2002)
First, let’s see the main characteristics of this best-known extrinsic factor, which increases skin aging. The most of the organs are located internally in the human body, however, in the case of the skin being the largest organ of our body, it has two sides of the coin; some
parts are protected against UV rays and others are exposed to UV rays, this is how each organ experiences aging in various ways, in this case the skin can be classified into three groups: intrinsic, photographic and hormonal aging. Also presented in this study are data showing that mtDNA copy number declines with UV exposure and protected skin aging. There was a clear downward trend with age, supporting previous research.
Correlations between decreased wound healing processes and aging have been reported previously, notably an in vivo study showing that wound healing rates are delayed by 20% to 60% with age. Thus, the decrease in genes related to wound healing, including ADIPOR2, NOTCH2,
PRKAR2A, PDPK1, MAKG, with photoaging along with key aging, NDST1 RXRA, AHNAK2 and CELSR1, EXTL3 and XYLT1, which play a role in the heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process that is involved in wound healing, also showed a decrease with aging in exposed and UV protected skin, which strengthened the result. (Byuri, Seong, & Jeong, 2018)
So is it possible to see beyond skin rejuvenation to immortality?
For science, aging ceased to be an inexorable process, during the last few years a next experiment was carried out on mice.
Según which achieved an enactment of 50% more life and even making these mice in their old age run 50% more that young mice, to which gene therapies have also been developed that manage to repair the retina of elderly mice, restoring their vision as they had when they were young, these are undoubtedly advances that may possibly be applied in humans in the coming decades.
“For almost a century calorie restriction (CR) has been the gold standard for geroprotective interventions, not only extending lifespan and healthspan, but also preventing or delaying.” (Heidi H Pak, y otros, 2021)
Research began on which genes and which metabolic pathways were activated during caloric restriction with the aim of finding the one responsible for the increase in longevity. It was discovered that one of the protagonists was the sirtuins, a family of proteins that are involved in the health of our cells and that consume NAD molecules to do so, what was done in the study was to administer a dose of NMN, which is a precursor of NAD, obtaining quite surprising results, the mice that were administered NMN despite having an advanced age were able to run 50% further than young mice, as well as have an improvement in cognitive and cardiovascular processes and of course increase longevity.
Engineered mice expressing additional copies of SIRT1 or SIRT6, or treated with sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) such as resveratrol and
SRT2104 or with NAD+ precursors, have improved organ function, physical endurance, disease resistance, and longevity. (Michael S, Bonkowski , & David A. Sinclair , 2016)
The results are very encouraging, however, thus, due to the complexity of longevity studies, they are still beginning, the truth is that we still have a long way to go before we can make such convincing statements, but without a doubt, if similar results were obtained in humans
to those that have been obtained in In mice, we would be talking about a real revolution. Another consequence of aging is the apparent accumulation of damage and alterations in our genome. For decades it was thought that these alterations were due to DNA damage
that could not be repaired correctly and that little by little Little did cell functioning worsen, and this hypothesis was further reinforced when dolly the sheep suffered a premature death since, being cloned from an adult cell, the explanation was obvious, Dolly was born old, However, years later, more sheep and many other animals were cloned again, but none died prematurely. It turned out that the reprogramming that the adult cells underwent during cloning reversed all those changes that it accumulated until old age, thus achieving that from a aged cell with shortened telomeres and all the different alterations in its genome animals were born in perfect health and with a normal life expectancy, then this raised a very interesting question if we know that over time the cell accumulates damage and alterations in your genome.
Thus achieving that from an aged cell with shortened telomeres and all the different alterations in its genome, animals were born in perfect health and with a normal life expectancy, then this raised a very interesting question if we know that with the passage of time the cell accumulates damage and alterations in its genome. thus achieving that from an aged cell with shortened telomeres and all the different alterations in its genome, animals were born in perfect health and with a normal life expectancy, then this raised a very interesting question if we know that with the passage of time the cell accumulates damage and alterations in its genome. So how is it that reprogramming is able to eliminate them and what was really happening in that cell? if the damage was not really accumulating in the DNA sequence, the answer was obvious, epigenetics, since it is the tool that the cell has to decide which genes it is going to express and which ones it is not, so we can see how cells have the same genes that have the same genome, the same chromosomes end up being as different as neurons or skin cells, these epigenetic modifications are silencing mechanisms that prevent the expression of certain genes or certain specific parts of the genome, in this way the cell chooses only and exclusively those genes and those characteristics that it will need to carry out its function.
The conclusion we draw from all this is that, looking at both sides, the continued work on both human skin rejuvenation and rejuvenation in mice can be expected much further in the future, epigenetics and specifically the accumulation of certain epigenetic alterations are the best indicator of the real age we have. Now the question that remains is knowing that we can reprogram an aged cell so that it becomes young again, where is the limit and how many times can we do this? maybe the day will come when we can imitate those jellyfish and treat it over and over again the different organs the different cells rejuvenating it over and over again to the starting point, until we find a limit and until we find a barrier or something that prevents it.
Seeing all this, while science advances, however, what has been more than proven that you can do to delay aging and even rejuvenate yourself are three things: play sports for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise a week, improve your diet dividing 50%
vegetables, 25% proteins, 25% carbohydrates, leading a healthy life, without consuming things that are harmful to the body.
Batabyal S, Gajjeraman S, Pradhan S, & Bhattacharya . (3 de November de 2020). Gene therapy with novel protein restores vision in mice. Obtenido de U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850092/
Blasco, M. A., Partridge, L., Serrano, M., Kroemer, G., & Lopez, O. C. (6 de June de 2013). The hallmarks of aging. Obtenido de Pubmed.gov:
Byuri, A. C., Seong, K. Y., & Jeong, S. S. (18 de july de 2018). Signatures of photo-aging and intrinsic aging in skin were revealed by transcriptome network analysis. Obtenido de NCBI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6075446/#
Gail, J. (April de 2002). Molecular mechanisms of skin ageing. Obtenido de Mech Ageing Dev: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11869737/
Guarente, L. (1 de October de 2013). Calorie restriction and sirtuins revisited. Obtenido de NCBI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850092/
Heidi H Pak, Spencer Haws, Mikaela Koller, Cara L , Green, C., Nicole Richardson, . . . John Denu. (1 de june de 2021). 2021 Midwest Clinical and Translational Research Meeting of CSCTR. FASTING MEDIATES THE METABOLIC, MOLECULAR AND GEROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS IN A CALORIE RESTRICTED, 1088. Obtenido de FASTING MEDIATES THE METABOLIC, MOLECULAR AND GEROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS IN A CALORIE RESTRICTED:
Instituto Mexicano de la Propiedad Industrial . (5 de july de 2017). 5 de julio de 1996 nace la oveja Dolly. Obtenido de Gobierno de México: https://www.gob.mx/impi/articulos/nace-la oveja-dolly
Leonard, G. (1 de October de 2013). Calorie restriction and sirtuins revisited. Obtenido de NCBI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850092/
Michael S, Bonkowski , & David A. Sinclair . (24 de August de 2016). Slowing ageing by design: the rise of NAD+ and sirtuin-activating compounds. Obtenido de NCBI:
Passaniti A, T. R. (1992). A simple, quantitative method for assessing angiogenesis and antiangiogenic agents using reconstituted basement membrane, heparin, and fibroblast growth factor. Obtenido de https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1279270/
Written by: Gina Genesis Urdininea Santa Cruz
Words from the Author: “One of my interests is the advancement of biotechnology, so research and learning is one of the things I like, one of my determinations is to become a biotechnologist who already contributes to both present and future advances.”
Editted By: Angie Páez
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s). They do not purport to reflect the opinions or views of the WTO or its members. Las opiniones expresadas en esta publicación son de los autores, no necesariamente reflejan el pensamiento de Haneul Ssem.
Envíalo a través del siguiente link https://forms.gle/qNhMLmyEJZDKh8uB7
Puedes revisar las condiciones en el siguiente post: https://www.instagram.com/p/CY5Us4kMj9o/